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Introduction

As particular industry sectors mature, usability and technical reliability of products is taken for granted and users start to look for products that either are the most inexpensive or provide engaging user experience (UX) [15]. Many maturing industries have realized that delivering products and services is not enough, but delivering experiences is the key [12,16]. Product development is no longer only about implementing features and testing their usability, but about understanding people's daily lives and designing products, which are not only practical but resonate with the most basic human needs. Thus, user experience lies in the heart of product development.

Although the term UX originated from industry [13] and is a widely used term in this context [9], the tools for managing UX in product development are still inadequate, and even the definition of UX is not settled. The various definitions for user experience do agree that user experience is about more than a product's utility and usability [1,7,10,11,17,18]. There also seems to be a consensus about the subjective nature of UX: it is affected by the user’s internal state, the context, and the perceived image of the product [1,7,10]. However, this may not be concrete enough for systematic consideration of UX in product development.

A prerequisite of designing for a delighting UX in an industrial setting is to understand both the requirements tied to the pragmatic level of functionality and interaction (do-level) and the requirements pertaining to the hedonic level of personal human needs, which motivate product use (be-level). These requirements help managers set UX targets for product development. The next phase in a good user-centered design process is to iteratively design and evaluate prototypes [8]. Without evaluation, it is not possible to improve UX. Before systematic UX evaluation can be taken into practice, we need to find lightweight evaluation methods applicable for iterative prototype development.

Like there are many viewpoints to UX, there are several viewpoints also to UX evaluation. Traditional Human-computer interaction (HCI) emphasizes tasks and goals and according evaluation methods emphasize the pragmatic level of product use (doing) and fail to address the more hedonic level of experience (being). Hassenzahl [6] for example suggested a model, which distinguishes between pragmatic and hedonic quality aspects and suggested an according questionnaire to measure both quality perceptions. Another current approach to UX evaluation is to evaluate users’ emotional responses to product usage by measuring their arousal states, e.g. [4,5]. In consumer research, customer satisfaction is traditionally evaluated by comparing the realized experience against expectations (see [14] for the basic model). If the product exceeds expectations, user experience is positive. Yet another approach emphasizes added value and worth [2] and compares user’s investments in money, energy, and time against the gained instrumental and hedonic benefits.

Institute of Human-Centered Technology Nokia Universität Koblenz-Landau
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