Automatic Classification of Music Signals


Human Performance in Musical Genre Classification, Listening Experiment

Publication info

Automatic Classification of Music Signals

Toni Heittola

Master's thesis, Institute of Signal Processing, Tampere University of Technology, 2004

Abstract

In the listening experiment subjects had to classify musical excerpts of varying length into six genres categories (classical, electronic/dance, hip hop, jazz/blues, pop/rock, sound/RnB/funk). Each of the 20 subjects classified a total of 60 pieces using four different excerpt lengths. Test subjects were evenly divided in two separate groups each including the same number of stimuli and identical musical genres, but having separate sets of test pieces.

It was found that humans are able to perform genre classification with 57% accuracy already based on 250 ms excerpts and the performance increases steadily along with the excerpt length, reaching 75% level for 5.0s excerpts but showing no saturation by that point. Analysis of the results showed that selection of the test subjects and the pieces had some effect on the results in the case of the longest excerpts. The results were compared to a basic machine classifier which used Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients as features. The human listeners outperformed an automatic classifier by 8-17%, the performance gap growing larger for the longer excerpts. This was interpreted to be due to the use of longer-term rhythmic or melodic features which were not utilized by the machine classifier. Certain genres were easier for both humans and the machine, whereas some others were ambiguous for both.

Musical genre confusions

Experiment results are presented for each test piece and for four test excerpt lengths. Values presented for each genre are percentages, "correct" genre is mark in bold.

Classnames:

  • C = classical
  • E = electronic/dance
  • H = hipHop/Rap
  • J = jazz/blues
  • R = rock/pop
  • S = soul/RnB/funk

Group 1, Genre confusions

piece names
C
E
H
J
R
S
Artist: Mozart Festival Orchestra, conductor Alberto Lizzio, horn solo Josef Dokupil
Title : Horn concerto nr.1 D major= Allegro
Album : Mozart - Horn concertos
Genre : classical

 

 

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Artist: Piffaro
Title : Ave regina caelorum
Album : A Flemish Feast
Genre : classical
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Artist: Lars Henning Lie, Barbara Hölzl
Title : Zur Johannisnacht
Album : Klang debut: lied
Genre : Classical
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Artist: Gudrun Derler, Barbara Hölzl
Title : Der Fischer
Album : Klang debuts: Lied
Genre : Classical
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Artist: I Salonisti
Title : Kuolema op.44: Valse Triste
Album : Serenata
Genre : classical
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Artist: Academy chamber ensemble
Title : Sonata in A-dur op.5/1: gavotte (allegro)
Album : Trio sonatas op.5
Genre : classical
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Artist: Ida Czernecka
Title : Waltz no.12 in f minor op.70 nr.2
Album : Rendez-vous with the great composers
Genre : classical
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Artist: Erkki Rautio (cello), Izumi Tateno (piano)
Title : Berceuse
Album : Lauantain toivotuimmat klassikot
Genre : classical
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Artist: London philharmonic orchestra
Title : Die Zauberflöte: ouverture
Album : Rendez-vous with the great composers
Genre : classical
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Artist: Süddeutsche philharmonic # conducted by Hanspeter Gmuer
Title : A midsummer night's dream. Notturno. Con moto tranquillo
Album : Rendez-vous with the great composers
Genre : classical
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Artist: Hypnotist
Title : Live in Berlin
Album : Best of rave, vol.3
Genre : electronic/dance
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Artist: Les Rythmes Digitales
Title : Jacques your body (make you sweat)
Album : Darkdancer
Genre : electronic/dance
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Artist: Art of noise
Title : Something always happens
Album : This is drum & bass
Genre : electronic/dance
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Artist: Chemical Brothers
Title : Let forever be
Album : Big noize
Genre : electronic/dance
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Artist: Daft punk
Title : Voyager
Album : Discovery
Genre : electronic/dance
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Artist: Moodymann
Title : Long hot sexy nights
Album : A funky house trip
Genre : electronic/dance
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Artist: KC and the sunshine band
Title : That's the way (I like it)
Album : Black party grooves vol.1
Genre : electronic/dance
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Artist: Chain reaction
Title : Dance Freak
Album : Disco juice
Genre : electronic/dance
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70
Artist: Orbital
Title : Forever
Album : Snivilisation
Genre : electronic/dance
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Artist: William Orbit
Title : Cavalleria rusticana
Album : Pieces in a modern style
Genre : electronic/dance
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Artist: System of a down/Wu-Tang clan
Title : Shame
Album : Loud rocks
Genre : hip hop/rap
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Artist: Jay-Z feat.Foxy Brown
Title : Paper chase
Album : Vol.2.Hard knock life
Genre : hip hop/rap
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Artist: Public enemy
Title : Last mass of the caballeros
Album : There's a poison going on
Genre : hip hop/rap
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Artist: Public enemy
Title : Crayola
Album : There's a poison going on
Genre : hip hop/rap
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Artist: Busta Rhymes
Title : One
Album : When disaster strikes
Genre : hip hop/rap
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Artist: Ceebrolistics
Title : aie/i try
Album : 0. ep
Genre : hip hop/rap
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Artist: Wyclef Jean
Title : Gone till November
Album : Grammy rap nominees 1999
Genre : hip hop/rap
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Artist: Ceebrolistics
Title : Jalat maassa
Album : 0. ep
Genre : hip hop/rap
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Artist: Run DMC
Title : Word is born
Album : Back from hell
Genre : hip hop/rap
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Artist: Petter
Title : En resa
Album : Mitt sjätte sinne
Genre : hip hop/rap
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Artist: The Dave Weckl band
Title : Song for Claire
Album : Rhytm of the soul
Genre : jazz/blues
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Artist: Abraham Laboriel
Title : Dear friends
Album : Dear friends
Genre : jazz/blues
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Artist: The Erstrand-Lind quartet
Title : Avalon
Album : We'll meet again
Genre : jazz/blues
250ms
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Artist: Spyro Gyra
Title : Westwood moon
Album : Heart of the night
Genre : jazz/blues
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Artist: The Erstrand-Lind quartet
Title : I got rhythm
Album : We'll meet again
Genre : jazz/blues
250ms
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80
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Artist: Memphis Slim
Title : Tiajuana
Album : The real folk blues
Genre : jazz/blues
250ms
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Artist: Sanne
Title : Where blue begins
Album : The blues 2
Genre : Jazz/blues
250ms
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Artist: Rory Block
Title : The spirit returns
Album : Moonshine blues
Genre : Jazz/blues
250ms
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40
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Artist: James Cotton
Title : Straighten up baby
Album : Moonshine blues
Genre : Jazz/blues
250ms
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Artist: The Jeff Healey band
Title : Roadhouse blues
Album : The Blues 2
Genre : Jazz/blues
250ms
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10
Artist: Frank Sinatra and Nancy Sinatra
Title : Somethin' stupid
Album : My way/ the best of Frank Sinatra
Genre : rock/pop
250ms
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10
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10
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30
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40
40
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Artist: Michael Jackson
Title : Black or white
Album : History
Genre : Rock/Pop
250ms
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Artist: Michael Jackson
Title : Bad
Album : History
Genre : Rock/Pop
250ms
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Artist: Santana
Title : She's not there
Album : The best of
Genre : rock/pop
250ms
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Artist: CMX
Title : Palvonnan eleitä
Album : Rautakantele
Genre : Rock/Pop
250ms
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90
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Artist: Jesus Jones
Title : Your crusade
Album : Perverse
Genre : rock/pop
250ms
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Artist: Kiss
Title : Psycho circus
Album : Psycho circus
Genre : rock/pop
250ms
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Artist: Children of Bodom
Title : Towards Dead End
Album : HellDorado (compilation)
Genre : rock/pop
250ms
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Artist: Béla Fleck and the Fleckstones
Title : Shubbee's doobie
Album : Live art
Genre : rock/pop
250ms
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20
30
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Artist: Kenny Rogers
Title : Three times a lady
Album : After dark
Genre : rock/pop
250ms
20
0
0
20
60
0
500ms
10
0
0
10
60
20
1500ms
20
0
0
10
50
20
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0
0
0
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80
0
Artist: Dr.Funkenstein and the brides of Funkenstein
Title : Rat kissed the cat
Album : George Clinton - a fifth of funk
Genre : soul/rnb/funk
250ms
0
10
20
40
20
10
500ms
0
0
20
20
20
40
1500ms
0
0
0
20
40
40
5000ms
0
0
0
20
20
60
Artist: Lonnie Green
Title : I didn't know that funk was loaded (count Funkula)
Album : George Clinton - a fifth of funk
Genre : soul/rnb/funk
250ms
0
10
20
10
10
50
500ms
0
10
20
30
0
40
1500ms
0
0
30
0
30
40
5000ms
0
0
0
0
10
90
Artist: Cameo
Title : I just want to be
Album : The best of Cameo
Genre : soul/rnb/funk
250ms
0
20
10
30
10
30
500ms
0
40
40
0
0
20
1500ms
0
20
0
0
20
60
5000ms
0
30
0
10
0
60
Artist: Sade
Title : Kiss of life
Album : Love Deluxe
Genre : soul/rnb/funk
250ms
0
0
0
0
80
20
500ms
0
0
0
30
30
40
1500ms
0
0
0
10
50
40
5000ms
0
0
0
10
60
30
Artist: Joe Morris
Title : The applejack
Album : Atlantic rhytm and blues 1947-1974
Genre : soul/rnb/funk
250ms
0
0
0
80
0
20
500ms
0
0
0
90
0
10
1500ms
0
0
0
100
0
0
5000ms
0
0
0
90
10
0
Artist: James Brown
Title : Standing on higher ground
Album : Love over-due
Genre : soul/rnb/funk
250ms
0
10
10
20
10
50
500ms
0
10
10
30
10
40
1500ms
0
0
0
20
20
60
5000ms
0
0
0
40
0
60
Artist: Lauryn Hill
Title : To Zion
Album : The miseducation of Lauryn Hill
Genre : soul/rnb/funk
250ms
0
20
20
0
10
50
500ms
0
0
20
10
50
20
1500ms
0
0
10
10
10
70
5000ms
0
0
40
0
10
50
Artist: D'Angelo
Title : I found my smile again
Album : Space jam
Genre : soul/rnb/funk
250ms
0
10
20
30
10
30
500ms
0
0
10
0
30
60
1500ms
0
0
0
0
0
100
5000ms
0
0
10
0
0
90
Artist: Toni Braxton
Title : Un-break my heart
Album : Secrets
Genre : soul/rnb/funk
250ms
10
10
10
10
50
10
500ms
0
0
0
0
60
40
1500ms
0
0
0
0
80
20
5000ms
0
0
0
0
80
20
Artist: Salt 'n Pepa
Title : Shoop
Album : The best of
Genre : soul/rnb/funk
250ms
0
10
70
0
10
10
500ms
0
0
50
0
30
20
1500ms
0
0
50
10
10
30
5000ms
0
0
80
0
10
10

Group 2, Genre confusions

piece names
C
E
H
J
R
S
Artist:
Title : Deck the halls
Album : Christmas brass
Genre : classical

 

 

250ms
60
10
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20
10
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70
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30
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70
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20
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90
0
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10
Artist: Dallas brass
Title : Carol of the bells
Album : Christmas brass
Genre : classical
250ms
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10
0
0
20
10
500ms
70
10
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10
10
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10
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0
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Artist: Choralschola der Wiener Hofburgkapelle
Title : Kyrie Eleison
Album : Gregorian Chant - Gregorianischer Choral
Genre : classical
250ms
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Artist: Covent Garden royal opera choir and orchestra (conducted by Bernard Haitink)
Title : Heprealaisten orjien kuoro
Album : Lauantain toivotuimmat klassikot
Genre : classical
250ms
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Artist: Academy chamber ensemble
Title : Sonata in e minor: sarabande (largo assai)
Album : Trio sonatas op.5/3
Genre : classical
250ms
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Artist: Südwestdeutsches kammerorchester
Title : Sarabande op.93
Album : Salonkonzert
Genre : classical
250ms
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Artist: Ida Czernecka
Title : Nocturne no.1 in Bb minor op.9 nr.1
Album : Rendez-vous with the great composers
Genre : classical
250ms
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Artist:
Title : Etude, op.25 No.9 in G flat major
Album : Etudes
Genre : classical
250ms
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Artist: Marian Lapsansky, Peter Toperczer, Czechoslovak Radio Symphony Orchestra
Title : Peter and the Wolf
Album : Peter and the Wolf & Carnival of the animals
Genre : classical
250ms
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Artist: Radio symphony orchestra Ljubjana # conducted by Anton Nanut
Title : Symphony no.8 Bb minor, The unfinished symphony: allegro moderato
Album : Rendez-vous with the great composers
Genre : classical
250ms
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Artist: Neuroactive
Title : Space divider
Album : Five years of electronic tears
Genre : electronic/dance
250ms
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Artist: Nebulla II
Title : Peacemakers
Album : Best of rave, vol.3
Genre : electronic/dance
250ms
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Artist: Sunship
Title : The original sun
Album : Sunship
Genre : electronic/dance
250ms
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Artist: Sunship
Title : The unseen
Album : Sunship
Genre : electronic/dance
250ms
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Artist: Les Rythmes Digitales
Title : Music makes you lose control
Album : Darkdancer
Genre : electronic/dance
250ms
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Artist: Daft punk
Title : Harder, better, faster, stronger
Album : Discovery
Genre : electronic/dance
250ms
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Artist: Artful dodger feat.Craig David
Title : Re-rewind
Album : It's all about the stragglers
Genre : electronic/dance
250ms
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Artist: Queen Yahna
Title : Ain't it time
Album : Disco juice
Genre : electronic/dance
250ms
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Artist: Aphex Twin
Title : Pulsewidth
Album : Selected ambient works 85-92
Genre : electronic/dance
250ms
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Artist: William Orbit
Title : L'Inverno
Album : Pieces in a modern style
Genre : electronic/dance
250ms
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Artist: Petter
Title : Minnen
Album : Mitt sjätte sinne
Genre : hip hop/rap
250ms
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Artist: Cameo
Title : She's strange (12" rap version)
Album : the best of Cameo
Genre : hip hop/rap
250ms
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Artist: Cypress Hill
Title : How I could just kill a man
Album : Big noize
Genre : hip hop/rap
250ms
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Artist: Dead Prez
Title : Be healthy
Album : Let's get free
Genre : hip hop/rap
250ms
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Artist: Busta Rhymes
Title : When disaster strikes
Album : When disaster strikes
Genre : hip hop/rap
250ms
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Artist: The Roots feat. Erykah Badu
Title : You got me
Album : Grammy rap nominees 2000
Genre : hip hop/rap
250ms
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Artist: Grunge is dead (Butch Vig) / M.O.P.
Title : How bout some hardcore
Album : Loud rocks
Genre : hip hop/rap
250ms
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Artist: Jermaine Dupri feat. Jay-Z
Title : Money ain't a thing
Album : Grammy rap nominees 1999
Genre : hip hop/rap
250ms
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Artist: Dead Prez
Title : Mind sex
Album : Let's get free
Genre : hip hop/rap
250ms
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Artist: Busta Rhymes
Title : Turn it up (Remix) Fire it up
Album : When disaster strikes
Genre : hip hop/rap
250ms
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10
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Artist: Miles Davis
Title : Human nature
Album : You're under arrest
Genre : jazz/blues
250ms
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Artist: Närpes skolmusikkår-Närpes youth band, conductor Anders Teir
Title : Watermelon man
Album : Närpes Skolmusikkår
Genre : jazz/blues
250ms
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Artist: Al DiMeola
Title : Dark eye tango
Album : Greates hits
Genre : jazz/blues
250ms
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Artist: Headhunters
Title : Frankie and Kevin
Album : Return of the headhunters
Genre : jazz/blues
250ms
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Artist: George Gee and the jump, jive and wailers
Title : 720 in the books!
Album : Buddha boogie
Genre : jazz/blues
250ms
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Artist: Muddy Waters
Title : Forty days and forty nights
Album : Blues legends vol.1
Genre : jazz/blues
250ms
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Artist: Pepe Ahlqvist and Jarkka Rissanen
Title : Bad, bad whiskey
Album : Good act
Genre : Jazz/blues
250ms
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Artist: Gary Moore
Title : The supernatural
Album : Blues for Greeny
Genre : jazz/blues
250ms
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Artist: Johnny Copeland
Title : San Antone
Album : Flyin' high
Genre : Jazz/blues
250ms
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20
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Artist: Johnny Adams
Title : Room with a view
Album : Room with a view of the blues
Genre : Jazz/blues
250ms
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Artist: The golden nightingale orchestra
Title : Love story
Album : For lovers only
Genre : rock/pop
250ms
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Artist: Marisa Monte
Title : Danca da solidao
Album : A great noise
Genre : Rock/pop
250ms
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Artist: Celine Dion
Title : My heart will go on
Album : VH1 Divas live
Genre : rock/pop
250ms
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Artist: The move
Title : Flowers in the rain
Album : Baby boomer classics the sixties vol.1
Genre : rock/pop
250ms
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Artist: The Police
Title : Message in a bottle
Album : Reggatta de blanc
Genre : rock/pop
250ms
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Artist: Robert Wells
Title : Spanish rapsody
Album : rhapsody in rock - complete
Genre : rock/pop
250ms
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10
Artist: Cradle of filth
Title : A gothic romance (red roses for the devil's whore)
Album : Dusk and her embrace
Genre : rock/pop
250ms
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Artist: Cradle of filth
Title : Heaven torn asunder
Album : Dusk and her embrace
Genre : rock/pop
250ms
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Artist: Béla Fleck and the Flecktones
Title : Lochs of dread
Album : Live art
Genre : rock/pop
250ms
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Artist: Kenny Rogers
Title : Ain't no sunshine
Album : After dark
Genre : rock/pop
250ms
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Artist: Kool & the gang
Title : Hollywood swinging
Album : The best of
Genre : soul/rnb/funk
250ms
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70
Artist: Manu Dibango
Title : Big blow
Album : Africa funk
Genre : soul/rnb/funk
250ms
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Artist: Kool and the gang
Title : Funky stuff
Album : The best of
Genre : soul/rnb/funk
250ms
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60
Artist: Al Green
Title : Let's stay together
Album : Greatest hits vol.1
Genre : soul/rnb/funk
250ms
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Artist: Take 6
Title : Fly away
Album : Greatest hits
Genre : soul/rnb/funk
250ms
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Artist: Al Green
Title : Tired of being alone
Album : Greatest hits vol.1
Genre : soul/rnb/funk
250ms
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Artist: Lucy Pearl
Title : Don't mess with my man
Album : Lucy Pearl
Genre : soul/rnb/funk
250ms
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Artist: Toni Braxton
Title : Let it flow
Album : Secrets
Genre : soul/rnb/funk
250ms
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Artist: Monica
Title : For you I will
Album : Space jam
Genre : soul/rnb/funk
250ms
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Artist: Toni Braxton
Title : There's no me without you
Album : Secrets
Genre : soul/rnb/funk
250ms
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